Kripke himself expresses doubts in Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language as to whether Wittgenstein would endorse his interpretation of Philosophical Investigations. He says that the work should not be read as an attempt to give an accurate statement of Wittgenstein's views, but rather as an account of Wittgenstein's argument "as it struck Kripke, as it presented a problem for him". The portmanteau "Kripkenstein" has been coined for Kripke's interpretation of Philosophical Investigations.
Kripke's "skeptical solution" to meaning skepticism is to ground meaning in the behavior of a community. Kripke's book generated a large secondary literature, divided between those who find his skeptical problem interesting and perceptive, and others, such as Gordon Baker and Peter Hacker , who argue that his meaning skepticism is a pseudo-problem that stems from a confused, selective reading of Wittgenstein. Kripke's position has been defended against these and other attacks by the Cambridge philosopher Martin Kusch , and Wittgenstein scholar David G. Stern considers Kripke's book "the most influential and widely discussed" work on Wittgenstein since the s.
In his article "Outline of a Theory of Truth", Kripke showed that a language can consistently contain its own truth predicate, something deemed impossible by Alfred Tarski , a pioneer in formal theories of truth.
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The approach involves letting truth be a partially defined property over the set of grammatically well-formed sentences in the language. Kripke showed how to do this recursively by starting from the set of expressions in a language that do not contain the truth predicate, and defining a truth predicate over just that segment: this action adds new sentences to the language, and truth is in turn defined for all of them.
Unlike Tarski's approach, however, Kripke's lets "truth" be the union of all of these definition-stages; after a denumerable infinity of steps the language reaches a "fixed point" such that using Kripke's method to expand the truth-predicate does not change the language any further. Such a fixed point can then be taken as the basic form of a natural language containing its own truth predicate. But this predicate is undefined for any sentences that do not, so to speak, "bottom out" in simpler sentences not containing a truth predicate. That is, " 'Snow is white' is true" is well-defined, as is " ' "Snow is white" is true' is true," and so forth, but neither "This sentence is true" nor "This sentence is not true" receive truth-conditions; they are, in Kripke's terms, "ungrounded.
There is still a debate about whether Tarski's proof can be implemented to every variation of such a partial truth system, but none has been shown to be consistent by acceptable proving methods used in mathematical logic.
Philosophical Troubles : Collected Papers, Volume 1
Kripke's proposal is also problematic in the sense that while the language contains a "truth" predicate of itself at least a partial one , some of its sentences — such as the liar sentence "this sentence is false" — have an undefined truth value, but the language does not contain its own "undefined" predicate. In fact it cannot, as that would create a new version of the liar paradox , called the strengthened liar paradox "this sentence is false or undefined".
Thus while the liar sentence is undefined in the language, the language cannot express that it is undefined. Kripke is an observant Jew. I don't believe in a naturalist worldview. I don't base my thinking on prejudices or a worldview and do not believe in materialism. Its director is Gary Ostertag. The SKC holds events related to Kripke's work and is creating a digital archive of previously unpublished recordings of Kripke's lectures, lecture notes, and correspondence dating back to the s.
The reader's delight will grow as hints are dropped that there is a great deal more to come in this series being prepared by Kripke and an ace team of philosopher-editors at the Saul Kripke Center at The Graduate Center of the City University of New York. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Saul Kripke. Bay Shore, New York. Main article: Naming and Necessity.
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Archived from the original. PDF on 14 July Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations: An Introduction.
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