21st Century Common Sense

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Try to think of examples of psychological topics you have encountered recently in the media. Write these down. Note your reactions to the way they were presented. Do you think they were handled in a serious, balanced way, giving relevant evidence, or were they treated in a superficial and perhaps journalistic manner? Have another look at these notes when you reach the end of this introductory section and see if you have changed your views. As you work through this course you may find support for some of your ideas about psychology, but find that others are challenged because, not surprisingly, psychology is not entirely as it is portrayed in the media.

We would like to welcome you to the study of psychology, and hope that by the time you have read this course you will be able to evaluate commonly presented psychological issues in an informed way. Those of us who have written this course are excited by our subject matter. You will see as you go through the sections that we have different areas of expertise and interest within psychology.

One of the major aims of the course is to introduce you to that diversity and to invite you to share our enthusiasm. A discipline that encompasses such diversity and continues to be dynamic in producing new knowledge and new ways of looking at the world and human beings has much to offer. Some people will be doing this psychology course to consolidate earlier study and experience and to build a career.

Others will be quite new to psychology as a formal research-based discipline. Some will have been stimulated to study a course in psychology by the well-publicised examples of research findings or psychologists at work that are presented in the media. Some will be coming to this course because of experiences in their own personal lives.

This may be because they have been touched by especially difficult circumstances which they want to come to terms with, or because they feel the need to understand psychological topics such as identity, personality, relationships, intergroup relations or unconscious motivations. Others may have become curious about basic psychological questions such as how we perceive, the nature of memory, why we forget, and how we can understand the processes of learning.

Psychologists working professionally, whether doing research or in their psychotherapeutic practices, can help us to think about such everyday issues.

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Whilst no psychology course can promise definitive answers to all the questions in which you personally may be interested, the material in this course will increase your knowledge and your awareness, and provide ways of thinking about psychological issues of many kinds. In this course we want to indicate how we have arrived at the contemporary, multifaceted discipline of twenty-first-century psychology and discuss some of the issues which psychologists debate and study.

Consider the suggestions we made about why people might be studying this course and then list your own reasons for studying psychology. Think about this question in some depth; don't stop at just one reason. Try to bring into mind anything that might be of relevance to you, especially at this particular point in your life. If you can, keep these notes until you reach the end of the course and then consider if, and how, the psychology you have studied has illuminated these original goals.

The relevance of psychology to everyday concerns, and the ease with which it can be popularised and used, mean that psychological knowledge — some of it dubious, some of it accurate — is continually absorbed into culture and often incorporated into the very language we use.

Examples of psychological concepts that have entered popular discourse include the notion that we are predisposed, both through evolution and through the functioning of our brains and nervous systems, to behave in certain ways and to have intellectual and emotional capacities and limitations.

Many people speak of having short-term and long-term memories and recognise that they use different strategies for remembering details of recent and more distant events. And a lot of people now know that it is possible to be fooled into perceiving illusions as real and that things as routine as face-recognition or behaviour-in-groups are extremely complex.

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Many people have absorbed and take for granted the psychological notion that what happens to us in childhood has an influence on our psychological functioning over the rest of our lives. These examples demonstrate also how psychological concepts have an impact on the ways in which we think life should, ideally, be lived.

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Such ideas, and many others, have been influenced by psychological research, even when they are ideas that are not widely recognised as psychological. Furthermore, psychologists are increasingly being called on to give expert evidence on questions as disparate as legal decisions and design issues. It would, therefore, be true to say that psychology has an impact on our beliefs about ourselves and how life ought to be lived as well as on our everyday behaviours.

So far we have highlighted a pathway of influence from psychology to society. But this is not a one-way street. It is certainly the case that psychological research quite often addresses questions that originate in common-sense understandings. And this direction of influence between psychology and ordinary, everyday knowledge about people has led some to suggest that perhaps psychology is no more than common sense. However, as a field of enquiry, psychology is about much more than common sense, particularly in the way it investigates its subject matter.

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Psychological knowledge advances through systematic research that is based on consciously articulated ideas. And psychology is evidence-based. Psychologists may start from the knowledge they already have by virtue of being people themselves. This can be knowledge about people and psychological processes that are common in the culture or it may come from personal experiences of dealing with the world. It is these kinds of knowledge that are often called common sense. For example, one tradition in the study of personality began from the ordinary-language adjectives that everyone uses to describe other people's characteristics.

And many psychological researchers have chosen research topics and studied them in ways that seem to reflect their own life concerns.

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However, evidence-based research findings quite often contradict the common-sense understandings of the time, and can produce new understandings that themselves eventually become accepted as common sense. Consequently, they were expected to learn to spend time without adult attention. But a wealth of psychological research from the s onwards has reported that even very young infants are able to interact with other people in far more sophisticated ways than had been thought.

And it has been found that they develop best when they receive plenty of stimulation from the people around them and their environments more generally. The idea of leaving infants to cry or to spend time alone is now much less accepted than it was. Instead, the notion that they need stimulation has become part of ordinary knowledge about child rearing and generated a multimillion dollar industry in the production of infant educational toys.

Sometimes technological developments can lead to entirely new research directions. These new directions might not have been envisaged through the application of common sense or using older evidence-based methods. One example of such a technology-driven new direction is neuropsychology and the increasing application of brain-imaging techniques as a way of furthering understanding of behaviour and mental processes.

Other examples are advances in genetics and the decoding of the human genome, as well as computer-aided analysis of videotaped observations. What do we mean when we say that psychology is an evidence-based discipline? The basic principle is that it is necessary to have some means of evaluating the answers to psychological research questions. Sherratt and her colleagues Sherratt et al.

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We have used a version of this that we call the cycle of enquiry see Figure 1. The answers to these questions are claims. These claims have to be clearly identified so that they can be thoroughly assessed. Assessing claims requires the amassing of information called data. The evidence then has to be interpreted and evaluated. The process of evaluation often generates new questions to be addressed as well as providing support for, or disconfirmation of, the original claims.

Since psychology is concerned with the full range of what makes us human, it is not surprising that the scope of the discipline is extensive. Psychology has always been a diverse, multi-perspective discipline. This partly results from its origins. Psychological questions were asked first by philosophers, then increasingly by biologists, physiologists and medical scientists. In , Charles Darwin, the biologist who later put forward the theory of evolution, was doing the first scientific infant-observation study, observing and writing about his son's behaviours and emotions in descriptive psychological terms.

Darwin went on to become a renowned biological scientist whose methods were essentially the painstaking collection, description, categorisation and cataloguing of biological diversity. These were the data that later provided the evidence for his theory of evolution. Wilhelm Wundt is considered by many to have started psychology as a formal discipline when he opened the first psychological laboratory in in Leipzig, Germany.

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He was interested both in philosophical and physiological questions and, as a result, advocated a range of methodological approaches to collecting evidence. His own methods included use of the scientific experimental method, introspection asking people to think about and report on their inner feelings and experiences , and ethnography observations of human culture. William James, an American professor trained in philosophy, medicine and physiology, who published the influential Principles of Psychology in , also advocated a multi-method approach that included introspection and observation.

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Sigmund Freud, the first psychoanalyst, was a medical doctor and research physiologist who opened his psychology consulting room in Vienna in Freud, working at the same time as Wundt and James, pioneered a method that involved listening closely to people's personal accounts of their symptoms, emotions, and their lives more generally, asking insightful questions and attending to the particulars of language use and unconscious phenomena. The methods established by Darwin, Wundt, James and Freud — observation and description, experimentation, introspection and a focus on language — provided psychology with the beginnings of its diverse traditions.

Some of these continue to be influential, whilst others have lost favour or been substantially developed.

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